同等学力英语短文写作技巧(三)

日期: 2012-07-20 来源: 人大在职研 阅读:
   

  三、从句子到段落

  选择正确的词汇,组出正确的句子,还不是目的。连贯的思想是由若干个句子来表达的。句子的出现有一定的先后顺序,不同的句子在段落中有不同的作用,而且句子与句子之间有一定的衔接方式。下面我们看看怎样由句子组成段落。

  1.段落的结构一个段落一般由三部分组成:主题句(The Topic Sentence),段落扩展句( Paragraph Development Sentences) 和结论句 ( The Concluding Sentence), 如:

  Reasons for the growing popularity of fast-food chains appear obvious enough (1)。 For one thing, the food is generally cheap. A hamburger at McDonald´s, for example, costs about one-half as much as a meal at a regular restaurant. Another advantage of the chains is their convenience. For busy working couples who don´t want to spend the time or effort cooking, fast-food restaurants offer an attractive alternative (2)。 Considering the fact that customers are increasing in number, many Americans like the taste of the food (3)。

  主题句(The Topic Sentence)主题句是英文段落的典型特点,顾名思义,主题句就是提出段落主题的句子。它是一个段落的中心,要求全段其他所有的文字都围绕它展开。它指出了这段内容的主导思想。主题句既可以用在段落的开始或中间,也可以用在段落的末尾,但是对于硕士研究生入学考试来说,我们应该尽量把主题句放置于一个段落的开始,这既有助于组织材料,也可以使文章结构清楚。主题句是一篇文章的灵魂,文章的所有材料和论述都是围绕主题句展开的,因此,写好段落的主题句是写好作文的关键,一个好的主题句首先应该紧扣文章的中心思想,把该段落的内容限定在文章的中心内容之内。

  好的段落主题句必须表达一个完整的思想,该段落将围绕这一主题句逐步展开,用定义、描述、分类、解释、举例说明等手段。因此,段落主题句中必须包含段落的主旨,必须包含一个等待发展的思想。另外,一个好的段落主题句应该具有一定的限定性,它应该限定该段落的内容不至于偏离全文的中心内容,而且一个段落的容量是很有限的,如果主题句限定的范围太宽,主题句的内容就无法在该段落内得以阐述清楚。如果以The Problem of Cheating in Testing为题作文,考生很可能联系到有些学生考试作弊等不诚实的行为。但是如果说Cheating is very common around the world或Many students do not take cheating as a dishonest act等就显得主观和证据不足。一方面,主题句不能太大,但是也不能太小。如果太大,将无法具体讨论。如果太小,将限制后面的写作。例如,既然谈论考试作弊问题,就没有必要把这个题目扩大成整个教育产业和道德范围的大讨论,也没有必要抛开话题,转而讨论个别考试作弊的人是否能成才是否能诚实地对待婚姻家庭等话题。切记在设计主题句时注意不要把不相关的观点包括在一个主题句中,否则将失去航向。

  如果主题句不能确定具体的讨论范围,就形同虚设。一个好的主题句,不仅要表达作者的态度,还需要根据内容和字数方面的要求,对题目的范围进行控制和确定。

  段落扩展句(Paragraph Development Sentences)段落主题句给出段落的主题思想,段落扩展则用来发展、证明或支持这一主题思想。段落扩展句必须切题而且有序,还要层次分明。

  段落扩展句是对主题句进一步的引申与发展,然而引申与发展的方法是多种多样的。一种最为实用的方法就是设问 解答法,即在句子展开之前先提出一个问题,然后再针对这一问题进行解答,例如:

  结论句(The Concluding Sentence)结论句位于全段的末尾,对全段的内容进行总结、归纳或提出结论性观点。结论句不仅仅是重复主题句提出的段落主题(restatement),更重要的是,它可以进一步强调段落的中心思想,以引起读者的重视。写结论句应该注意,其结构形式没有必要与主题句在形式上保持一致,但是所表达的内容必须与主题句在内容上一致。当然,并非每个段落都需要结论句,对于一些描述性段落也可以不使用结论句。

  重点提示:

  文章的开头段由一个或几个句子组成。若开头段只有一个句子,这个句子本身往往就是文章的中心论点。一般来讲,文章的开头段有以下几种常见的方式:

  1)直接提出中心论点,如:

  I think it is fair to pay tuition fees for higher education in China.

  2)由某一普遍现象或概念开始,逐渐缩小范围,引出中心论点,如:

  Knowledge may be acquired through many ways. One way of getting knowledge is from traveling. Another way is by conversation, especially one with a great man. A person may also become knowledgeable through other ways such as listening to the radio or watching television. The best way to acquire-knowledge, however, is through reading.

  3)由某一具体事实或数据引出主题,如:

  During the past five years,the number of Americans h11ed annually in car accidents has climbed to more than55,000.These needless deaths on sweets and highways can be attributed to three general causes:mechanical failures,environmental conditions and errors of human judgment.

  4)由名言或谚语引出中心论点,如:

  Nearly every civilization has its equivalent to the proverb“No pains,no gains”。It means that nothing that is really worth doing can be gained without painstaking efforts and that no knowledge or skill Can be acquired Without sweat or effort.

  5)设问开头,引发读者兴趣,导入中心论点,如:

  Most of the ill health we suffer could be prevented if peop1e made effort to Change their life Styles.Instead,many people continue to smoke,to drink excessively and to eat Unbalanced diets. How can governments help people protect their health and avoid premature(过早的)death?

  注意:在写作文章开头段时应避免提出多个主题或论点。

  论述文的开头:提问,陈述句,谚语等图表作文的开头:In this picture(graph),you can see that…As(is)Shown in Fig.1.…It can be seen from the table that…文章的结尾文章的结尾与文章的开头一样,往往是读者最注意的地方,其作用是对文章的中心论点进一步强调或对文章就中心论点的论证进行归纳总结,给全文一个圆满的结束。常用的结尾方式如下:

  1)重申开头段中的中心论点,如:

  In Short,with people´s standard of living getting higher and higher,changes in their diet will be more obvious and greater.

  2)提出问题的解决方法,如:

  Making Cities greener requires more than Widespread awareness;it calls for an immediate commitment to planting more trees and growing more flowers.

  3)总结展开段中的论证,表明作者观点,如:

  I benefited by working in this factory.For one thing,I learned to exchange my labor for money;for.another,I made some new friends.

  注意:在文章的结尾段中应避免提出新的论点,以防“画蛇添足”。

  2.句子之间的过渡句子之间的过渡有四种基本类型:使用过渡词、重复关键词和词组、使用代词、使用并列结构。

  (1)过渡词包括连接副词、状语连接词。如:

  (a) Addition: again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last, moreover, next, second, still, too(b) Comparison: also, in the same way, likewise, similarly(c) Concession: granted; naturally, of course(d) Contrast: although, and yet, at the same time, but at the same time, despite that, even so, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still, though, yet(e) Emphasis: certainly, indeed, in fact, of course(f) Example or Illustration: after all, as an illustration, even, for example, for instance, in conclusion, indeed, in fact, in other words, in short, it is tree, of course, namely, specifically, that is, to illustrate, thus, truly(g) Summary: all in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarize(h) Time Sequence: after a while, .afterward, again, also, and then, as long as, at last, at length, at that time, before, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, in the past, last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, too, until, until now, when(2)重复关键词和词组可以使句子有节奏感、有感染力等特点,一定会给读者留下很深的印象。例如:

  We can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but we cannot fool all of the people all of the time.…a government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.

  (3)代词的使用可以避免不必要的重复,但是要注意指代明确。如This is true because…这句话用在文章开头显然不合适。This指代什么,一定要明确才行。如果担心在文中表述不清楚的话,干脆写成They say that…则更好。

  (4)并列结构同样可以给文章强烈的乐感和节奏感。请看下段:

  The ancient Egyptians were of preserving dead people´s bodies by making mummies of them. Mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. The skin, hair, teeth, fingernails and toenails, and facial features of the mummies were evident. It is possible to diagnose the disease they suffered in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies. The process was remarkably effective. Sometimes apparent were the fatal afflictions of the dead people: a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head, and polio killed a child king. Mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and out, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages.

  尽管这个段落不是非常完美,但是从主题句到结尾句,整段还是很统一的,不显得零散。不过由于缺少结构上的衔接还是不够连贯。再看修改后的段落并注意过渡和衔接手法:

  The ancient Egyptians were of preserving dead people´s bodies by making mummies of them. In short, mummification consisted of removing the internal organs; applying natural preservatives inside and out, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. And the process was remarkably effective. Indeed, mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. Their skin, hair, teeth, fingernails and toenails, and facial features are still evident. Their diseases in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies, are still diagnosable. Even their fatal afflictions are still apparent: a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head; a child king died from polio.

  可见,句子之间的过渡,使用过渡词是最主要的手段。在汉语写作中,人们讲究文章的起、承、转、合,实际上都是靠过渡性衔接手段来实现的。下面就从这个角度对以上列举的过渡词汇进行分类总结。

  (1)“启”:用于引导主题句,或用于主题句的后面,引导第一个发展句。如(1)first (firstly), at first, first of all, in the beginning, in the first place, at present, to begin with, currently, to start with, lately, for one thing, now, recently, on the one hand, in general, generally speaking, at present, in recent years, comparatively (speaking), nowadays, in general, in a sense, in a way, in my opinion, obviously, undoubtedly 等;(2) “承”:用于承接主题句或前一个发展句。如second ( secondly ), third (thirdly), also/too, besides, in addition, furthermore, moreover, what is more, for another, for example, for instance, as an example, as another example, namely, then, in other words, in particular, in the same way, after that, afterwards, after a few. days, after a while, from now on, later, just as, similarly, meanwhile, at the same time, by this time, soon, consequently, of course, for this purpose, equally important, what is more, what is worse, certainly, surely, obviously, especially, in particular, indeed, still, in fact, in plain terms, in practice, for the most part, no doubt 等;(3)“转”:用来表示不同或相反的情况。如 after all, but, yet, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, conversely, though, although, despite, in spite of, on the contrary, in contrast, unlike, whereas, on the other hand, all the same, unfortunately, still, in fact, as a matter of fact, in any case, at any rate, otherwise, or else, instead 等;(4)“合”:用于总结段落中上文的内容,引导一个发展句或结论句,也可以用于文章的最后一段。如finally,hence,in brief,in conclusion,in short,in summary, therefore, thus, to sum up, to conclude, to summarize, briefly, above all, as a consequence,as a result,for this reason, as has.been noted,as I have said,at last,at length,by and large,consequently,eventually,accordingly,so,after all,in general,in a word,on the whole等。

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