2013年考研英语真题及参考答案

日期: 2013-01-06 来源: 本站 阅读:
   

  2013年全国硕士入学考试英语已于昨日下午结束。全国硕士入学英语考试与在职研究生英语考试题型一样吗?英语考试难易程度一样吗?在职研究生考试分1月全国统考、5月同等学力申硕、10月在职联考,1月全国统考的英语题型与统招研英语题型和难易程度一样,而5月和10月的不一样,而且考试相对简单很多。

中国人民大学在职研究生招生信息网整理了2013年考研英语真题及参考答案如下,在职研究生朋友可以参考练习:

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that 1 the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by 2 factors. But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big 3 was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samles of information they were working with. 4 , he theorised that a judge 5 of apperaring too soft 6 crime might be more likely to send someone to prison 7 he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day。

  To 8 this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process. In theory, the 9 of an applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr. Simonsoho suspected the truth was 11 。

  He studied the results of 9,323 MBAinterviews 12 by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale 14 numerous factors into consideration. The scores were 15 used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the Granduate Managent Adimssion Test, or GMATa standardized exam which is 16 out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her。

  Dr. Simonsoho found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would 18 by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to 19 the effects of such a decrease a candidate could need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been 20 。

  1. [A] grants [B]submits [C]transmits [D]delivers

  2. [A] minor [B]objective [C]crucial [D] external

  3. [A] issue [B]vision [C]picture [D]external

  4. [A] For example [B] On average [C]In principle [D]Above all

  5. [A] fond [B] fearful [C]capable [D] thoughtless

  6. [A] in [B] on [C] to [D] for

  7. [A] if [B] until [C] though [D] unless

  8. [A] promote [B] emphasize [C] share [D]success

  9. [A] decision [B] quality [C] status [D] success

  10. [A] chosen [B] studied [C] found [D] identified

  11. [A] exceptional [B] defensible [C] replaceable [D] otherwise

  12. [A] inspired [B] expressed [C] conducted [D] secured

  13. [A] assigned [B] rated [C] matched [D] arranged

  14. [A] put [B] got [C] gave [D] took

  15. [A] instead [B] then [C] ever [D] rather

  16. [A] selected [B] passed [C] marked [D] introduced

  17. [A] before [B] after [C] above [D] below

  18. [A] jump [B] float [C] drop [D] fluctuate

  19. [A] achieve [B] undo [C] maintain [D] disregard

  20. [A] promising [B] possible [C] necessary [D] helpful

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada ,Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment。

  This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn’t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would described in Overdressed, Eliazabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decade or so ,advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara ,H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that –and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace。

  The victims of this revolution , of course ,are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals。

  Overdressed is the fashion world’s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan’s The Omnivore’s Dilemma. “Mass-produced clothing ,like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year – about 64 items per person – and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste。

  Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes – and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can’t be knocked off。

  Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment – including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line –Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to。

  21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her

  [A] poor bargaining skill。

  [B] insensitivity to fashion。

  [C] obsession with high fashion。

  [D] lack of imagination。

  22. According to Cline, mass-maket labels urge consumers to

  [A] combat unnecessary waste。

  [B] shut out the feverish fashion world。

  [C] resist the influence of advertisements。

  [D] shop for their garments more frequently。

  23. The word “indictment” (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to

  [A] accusation。

  [B] enthusiasm。

  [C] indifference。

  [D] tolerance。

  24. Which of the following can be inferred from the lase paragraph?

  [A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists。

  [B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability。

  [C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments。

  [D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing。

  25. What is the subject of the text?

  [A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle。

  [B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth。

  [C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry。

  [D] Exposure of a mass-market secret。

  Text 2

  An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half . In the internet age, at least in theory ,this fraction can be much reduced . By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to buy。

  In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission?

  In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Cornmission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell adwertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digltal Adwertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responging to DNT requests。

  On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default。

  It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Geting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway。

  Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. Atter all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, bloggde:"we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple?

  26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that “behavioural” ads help advertisers to:

  [A] ease competition among themselves

  [B] lower their operational costs

  [C] avoid complaints from consumers

  [D] provide better online services

  27. “The industry” (Line 6,Para.3) refers to:

  [A] online advertisers

  [B] e-commerce conductors

  [C] digital information analysis

  [D] internet browser developers

  28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default

  [A] many cut the number of junk ads

  [B] fails to affect the ad industry

  [C] will not benefit consumers

  [D] goes against human nature

  29. which of the following is ture according to Paragraph.6?

  [A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose

  [B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT

  [C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers

  [D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads

  30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of:

  [A] indulgence

  [B] understanding

  [C] appreciaction

  [D] skepticism

  Text 3

  Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to pandemic flu to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to。

  But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years - so why shouldn't we? Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years (see "100,000 AD: Living in the deep future"). Look up Homo sapiens in the IUCN's "Red List" of threatened species, and you will read: "Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline."

  So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organisations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation, based in San Francisco, has created a forum where thinkers and scientists are invited to project the implications of their ideas over very long timescales. Its flagship project is a mechanical clock, buried deep inside a mountain in Texas, that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence。

  Then there are scientists who are giving serious consideration to the idea that we should recognise a new geological era: the Anthropocene. They, too, are pulling the camera right back and asking what humanity's impact will be on the planet - in the context of stratigraphic time。

  Perhaps perversely, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science-fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future。

  But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves。

  This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy: while our species may flourish, a great many individuals may not. But we are now knowledgeable enough to mitigate many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come. Thinking about our place in deep time is a good way to focus on the challenges that confront us today, and to make a future worth living in。

  31. Our vision of the future used to be inspired by

  [A] our desire for ares of fulfillment

  [B] our faith in science and teched

  [C] our awareness of potential risks

  [D] our bdief in equal opportunity

  32. The IUCN“Rod List”suggest that human beings on

  [A] a sustained species

  [B] the word’s deminant power

  [C] a threat to the environment

  [D] a misplaced race

  33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5?

  [A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies。

  [B] Technology offers solutions to social problem。

  [C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise。

  [D] Our Immediate future is hard to conceive。

  34. To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to

  [A] explore our planet’s abundant resources。

  [B] adopt an optimistic view of the world。

  [C] draw on our experience from the past。

  [D] curb our ambition to reshape history。

  35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

  [A] Uncertainty about Our Future

  [B] Evolution of the Human Species

  [C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind。

  [D] Science, Technology and Humanity。

  Text 4

  Text 4

  On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona’s immigration law Monday-a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution,the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration’s effort to upset the balance of power between the federal government and the states。

  In Arizona v. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona’s controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to “establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization ”and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial . Arizona had attempted to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones。

  Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court’s liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun. On the overturned provisions the majority held the congress had deliberately “occupied the field” and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal’s privileged powers。

  However,the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement.That’s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues。

  Two of the three objecting Justice-Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas-agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute.The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia,who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the alien and Sedition Acts。

  The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as “a shocking assertion assertion of federal executive power”.The White House argued that Arizona’s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities,even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter.In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with 。

  Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status, it could. It never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn’t want to carry out Congress’s immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim。

  36. Three provisions of Arizona’s plan were overturned because they

  [A] deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers。

  [B] disturbed the power balance between different states。

  [C] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law。

  [D] contradicted both the federal and state policies。

  37. On which of the following did the Justices agree,according to Paragraph4?

  [A] Federal officers’ duty to withhold immigrants’information。

  [B] States’ independence from federal immigration law。

  [C] States’ legitimate role in immigration enforcement。

  [D] Congress’s intervention in immigration enforcement。

  38. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts

  [A] violated the Constitution。

  [B] undermined the states’ interests。

  [C] supported the federal statute。

  [D] stood in favor of the states。

  39. The White House claims that its power of enforcement

  [A] outweighs that held by the states。

  [B] is dependent on the states’ support。

  [C] is established by federal statutes。

  [D] rarely goes against state laws。

  40. What can be learned from the last paragraph?

  [A] Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress。

  [B] Justices intended to check the power of the Administrstion。

  [C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress。

  [D] The Administration is dominant over immigration issues。

  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  The social sciences are flourishing.As of 2005,there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010,the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000.

  Yet this enormous resource in not contributing enough to today’s global challenges including climate change, security,sustainable development and health。(41)______Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger , from genetically engineered crops to arificial fertilizers . Here , too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity。

  (42)____This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter:there is no radical innovation without creative destruction 。

  Today ,the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates,rather than on topics with external impact。

  Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004,(43)____

  When social scientists do tackle practical issues ,their scope is often local:Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium for example .And whether the community’s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful。

  The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding (44)____this is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today’s economic climate。

  The trick is to direct these funds better.The European Union Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists.This year,it was proposed that system be changed:Horizon 2020,a new program to be enacted in 2014,would not have such a category ,This has resulted in protests from social scientists.But the intention is not to neglect social science ; rather ,the complete opposite。(45)____That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems。

  [A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social

  scientists:one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly

  specialized journals,and one that is problem-oriented and publishing

  elsewhere,such as policy briefs。

  [B] However,the numbers are still small:in 2010,about 1,600 of the

  100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these

  Keywords。

  [C] the idea is to force social to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change food security, marine research and the bio-economy, clear, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies。

  [D] the solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones。

  [E] These issues all have root causes in human behavior . all require behavioral change and social innovations , as well as technological development . Stemming climate change , for example , is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy。

  [F] Despite these factors , many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems . And in Europe , some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development 。

  [G] During the late 1990s , national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds-including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate -varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations , it is about 15%。

  Section III Translation

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; (46) Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that , for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak os various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression。

  One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a “still point of the turning world,” to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. (47)A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the foemer becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one’s relation to one’s environment. (48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such。 In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand。

  Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, (49)most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as if by magic。 In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50)It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see biophilia- a yearning for contact with nonhuman life-assuming uncanny representational forms。

  Section IV Writing

  Part A

  51.Directions:

  Write an e-mail of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college , inviting him/her to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest. You should include the details you think necessary. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not sign your own name at the end of the e-mail , Use "Li Ming" instead。

  Do not write the address。(10 points)

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly

  2) explain its intended meaning, and

  3) give your comments

  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET2. (20 points)

  1.【答案】A

  【解析】第一句提到“总体而言,当人们自己做决定时,并不擅长考虑背景 信息。”第二句顺接上文,“乍一看这是一种优势”,that引起定语从句,这种优势使人们具有一种能力,即能够做出不受外界因素影响的不带偏见的决定。B选项submit “服从,提交”,不能与ability连用,C选项transmit “传输,发射”,也不能与ability 搭配,D选项deliver “传递”,同样不能与ability搭配。A, C, D无论从搭配上还是意思上都不合适。A选项grant本身具有赋予,授予的意思。故答案选A。

  2.【答案】D

  【解析】external外部因素和上文的backgroundinformation同义复现,不考虑背景信息,不受外界因素影响。A选项minor 次要的,B选项objective 客观的,C选项crucial 残酷的,D选项external 外部的,故答案选D。

  3.【答案】C

  【解析】第三题本句but引起句意转折。“但是XX推测不考虑大局会导致决策者被日常接触的信息影响而带有偏见。”首先注意到空前面有定冠词the,指代上文信息,即不考虑背景信息、不考虑大环境。而大局,大环境的表达,此处选择picture是最贴切的。A选项 issue 问题,B选项vision 想象力,美景都不合适,故答案选C。

  4.【答案】A

  【解析】通读后面的句子,提到了法官与被告,这明显是生活当中的一个具体的实例,故答案选A。而B选项 on average “平均,通常”,出现的话,周围往往应该要出现数字。C选项in principle“大体上,原则上”,后面需要出现的是总结性的话语,D选项above all“首先” 是用来列举条目,将A,B,D排除。

  5.【答案】B

  【解析】从句意上来看“例如,他们提出理论,认为法官不敢在罪行面前表现得太软弱,如果当天已经宣判五六名被告执行缓刑,那么他很有可能将下一个人送入监狱。A选项fond of 喜欢,B选项 fear of 惧怕,C选项capable of 有能力,D选项thoughtless of 考虑不周,故答案选B。

  6.【答案】B

  【解析】根据句内的逻辑关系,在对待犯罪行为方面害怕表现出太软弱,在。。。方面,关于。。。的表达应该用介词on,故答案为B。

  7.【答案】A

  【解析】A if 表条件。B选项 until 表时间,往往跟not连用,直接排除。C选项though表让步,D选项unless 相当于 if...not 。通读空格所在的前后句子,得出这两句之间的逻辑关系是表示条件的。

  8.【答案】D

  【解析】首先注意到idea前面有定冠词this,很明显指代上文提出的观点。而且跟上文以法官为例一样,下文“他们把注意力转向大学录取过程”也是上文观点的例证,目的是对上文的观点进行检验,而不是A选项“促进”,B选项“强调”或C选项“分享”,故答案选D。

  9.【答案】D

  【解析】A选项decision“决定”,B 选项quality“质量,品质”,C选项status“地位”,D选项success“成功”。申请者的____不应该取决于同一天随机选到的其他几名申请者。接着下文讲到面试官面试MBA[微博]申请者的结果results,因此第9题应该也有结果的意思,与下文结合是达到正面的结果,因此答案是即“申请者的成功”。其它选项带入原文重叠答案,与原义不符合

  10.【答案】A

  【解析】空格后面有一个副词为randomly,随机地,既然是随机,那么选项B选项studied“研究过的”,C选项found “找到的” D选项identified“经鉴定的”就与randomly是相矛盾的,全部排除。

  11.【答案】D

  【解析】本题解题关键在于but,通过suspect可以看出Dr. Simonsohn与前文意思相反,因此otherwise正好符合题意。

  12.【答案】C

  【解析】此外明显缺一个过去分词作interviews的定语,再看by后面的officers,只有conducted(执行),符合语境,故为正确答案。

  13.【答案】B

  【解析】本题末尾one to five(从一到五),前面又有一个on a scale(…的范围), A分配,D排列语义上说不通,再综合后面的factor(因素),对比一下,只有B(划分等级),整合起来,即划分成一到五个等级,合情合理C match看似与to搭配,但也不符合文意,故正确答案为B。

  14.【答案】D

  【解析】本题需联系整句话,take…into consideration(考虑,涉及),从形式上来说没有问题,再从意义上来看,说“这个等级考虑了几种因素…”,是对上文评级的进一步解释,也没有问题。

  15.【答案】B

  【解析】还是承接上文讲到的评级得分,后半句讲到的是(平时学校等级)考试得分,再结合中间conjunction一词(联接),可以推断为then(具有承接之意),因此为正确答案,而A和D为同一意义和用法(代替),与conjunction相冲突,C说不通,故也为错误选项。

  16.【答案】C

  【解析】本题出在一个非限定性定语从句上,先行词为a standardized exam, 后半句是800分,考试和分数之间首选marked,选项B通过 具有一定的干扰性,但注意主语是考试,所以正确选项为C。A为无关选项。

  17.【答案】A

  【解析】本句属于比较级,对比的是几个面试者的分数,C、D是空间上的上下,而这里缺的时间上的先后,故排除C和D,B是“之后”,不符合语言先后逻辑,故正确答案为A。

  18.【答案】C

  【解析】解本题需往下看,to…the effects of such adecrease, 由此可以判断接下来那个应聘者的分数是出现了下降,故直击正确选项C。

  19.【答案】B

  【解析】该句为不定式作主语,“(面试考官可能给)更低的分数”所带来的影响,可以推断,是消除或是抵消这种不利结果,应聘者需要在GMAT[微博]中多拿30分,A “达到”,C “保持”D“漠视”明显不符,故A“消除”为正确答案。

  20.【答案】C

  【解析】该题难度较大,需把句意弄懂,也就是“这30分是比…所多的”建议把四个选项分别代入空格处,A有前途的,B可能的,C必须的,D有帮助的,对比之后,只有C最合逻辑,也就是说“这30分是比原本该考试所必须要求的多出来的,即另外多拿本不需要的30分才能平衡前面的更低的分数”,故C为正确选项。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21.【答案】B (insensitivity to fashion)

  【解析】事实细节题。根据题干,首先定位到首段。由文章第一句后半句“…scoldsher unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her。”意思是:“……批评她没有魅力的助理,因为助理认为高级时尚对她的生活影响不大”。可知criticize是对scolds的同义替换,B项中的“insensitivity to fashion”是“imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her。”的同义替换。所以B项为正确答案。

  A项在文中并未提及,属于无中生有。C项和D项是对文章第一句的曲解。

  22.【答案】D (shop for their garments more frequently)

  【解析】事实细节题。根据题干,首先定位到第二段。由倒数第二句“these labels encouragestyle-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable, ……, and to renew their wardrobeevery few weeks。”意思是“这些商标(畅销商标)促使有时尚意识的消费者将服装看成是用完就可以丢弃的,……,并且每周更新他们的衣橱。”D选项 “shop for their garments morefrequently”的意思是“更加频繁地购买服装”,正好是“renew their wardrobe every few weeks”的同义替换。

  A,B,C项均属于无中生有项。

  23.【答案】A (accusation)

  【解析】词义题。题干中需要猜测词义的单词出现在第二段的第一句“……thefeverish world described in Overdressed,Elizabeth Cline’s three-year indictment of ‘fast fashion’”。再结合选项可知,“indictment”是ElizabethCline对“快时尚”的一种态度。因此,解答此题的关键在于联系上下文语境,找到Elizabeth Cline对“快时尚”的态度。由第二段最后一句“By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, thesebrands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to aseasonal pace。”,意思是“Cline说,通过以特别低的价格销售潮流物品,这些品牌破坏了潮流周期,动摇了这个长久以来习惯于季节周期的产业”。由“hijack”和“shaking”可知,Cline对“快时尚”应该是持否定态度的,所以选项A“accusation (谴责)”是正确选项。

  24.【答案】D (pricing is vital to environmental-friendlypurchasing)

  【解析】推理判断题。根据题干,可定位到最后一段。解题关键在于“Vanity is a constant; peoplewill only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to”,意思是“每个人都很虚荣,这很常见。但消费者付不起太多东西的时候,他们才会以更加可持续的方式去购物。”这句的关键词是“afford”和“shopmore sustainably”,对应于D项中的“pricing”和“environmental-friendly purchasing”。A项对于本段的曲解。B项说的是“忽视环境的可持续发展”,与文中“severalfast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and theenvironment…”(一些时尚服饰公司已经做出努力减少对劳动力和环境)意思相悖。C项文中未提及。

  25.【答案】C (criticism of thefast-fashion industry)

  【解析】主旨大意题。此题考查对全文主旨大意的准确归纳。从整个文章脉络来看,文章的第一段用事例引入,第二段讲到文章的主题“快时尚”,并指出它破坏了时尚周期,动摇了时尚产业。第三四段指出“快时尚”这种变革的弊端,比如:给自然资源造成压力、使用大量有害的化学物质、浪费现象。最后两段提到针对“快时尚”的不良影响,可以采取的解决办法。由此可知,C项统领全文,为正确答案。

  A, B,D项都不是文章所论述的中心主题。

  Text 2

  26.【答案】C (lower their operational costs)

  【解析】事实细节题。根据题干,首先定位到首段。这段的大意是广告经费的一半都浪费掉了,但是通过“behavioralads”可以追踪购买者的搜索习惯和评价,使得广告更有针对性,从而降低预算成本,也就是“this fraction can be much reduced”。 A、B和C选项文中并未提及,属于无中生有。

  27.【答案】D (internet browser developers)

  【解析】词义句意题。the industry在语篇中是指代前面的出现内容,而前面出现的Microsoft Internet Explorer,Apple’s Safair 和Google’s Chrome都是D选项中中的“Internet browser developers”。 B和C选项文中并未提及,属于无中生有。A选项并非本段中谈论的核心。

  28.【答案】A (will not benefit consumers)

  【解析】推理判断题。解题关键在于“… consumers will be worse off if the industry cannot collect informationabout their preferences”,也就是说,当浏览器开发者不能收集消费者网上购物倾向时,消费并不能从中受益。B、C和D选项文中并未提及,属于无中生有。

  29.【答案】B (DNT may not serve its intended purpose)

  【解析】推理判断题。根据题干,可以定位到第六段。解题关键在于理解本段的行文逻辑,即“unableto tell whether…or whether, some may ignore…”。也就是说“由于不能辨别有些主体是真正反对行为广告,也不能辨别它们支持微软的做法,有些人甚至忽视DNT,继续先前的做法。”可此可见,B项符合题意。A、C和D选项内容在本段中均没有提及。

  30.【答案】C (skepticism)

  【解析】观点态度题。根据题干,可以定位到文章最后一段倒数第二句,Brendon Lynch的博客中评论道:“我们认为消费者应该有更大的自主权(或掌控权)”。解题关键在于最后一句“Could it be really that simple?”,从中可明显看出作者的怀疑态度。A项是“理解”,B项是“赞成”,D选项是“纵容”的意思。

  Text 3

  31.【答案】[B] our faith in science and technology

  【解析】事实细节题。根据出题的顺序性原则,可回文定位到文章第一段。该段落共计两句话。第一句总体交代了过去人们对未来的畅想总体是积极,正面的(were largely positive)。本题的正确答案就隐含在第二句话中。第二个句子实际上紧接着第一句话,交代了积极畅想的原因在于“科学和技术能治愈人类的一切疾病”,由此可确定本题的正确答案为B。选项A、D都错在因果倒置,“ lives of fulfillment”

  以及“opportunity for all”都是科学、技术带来的结果,并非原因。选项C属于无中生有,本段并没有提及任何与“ potential risks”相关内容,故排除。

  32. 【答案】[A] a sustained species

  【解析】题干问的是“濒危物种名单(Red List)”意味着人类怎么样了?我们根据“IUCN”和“Red List”很容易定位到第三段。首段说的是几十年前至今人们对未来所持的态度,第二段出现转折,表明目前人们对于未来的危机意识加重。第三段再次转折,表示第二段中人们所持态度是错误的,即“人类未来不会有太大的生存危机”,并且在此段首句表明观点后,用各种信息去论证和支持这一观点。“Red List”很显然也是用来说明这个观点的,并且指出人类这个物种是widely distributed,adaptable,currently increasing,说的都是人类进化积极的一面。A选项说:濒危物种名单意味着人类是可以持久生存的物种,显然是正确选项。

  33. 【答案】 [D] Our Immediate future is hard to conceive.

  【解析】段落推断题。由本题的题干可以锁定本题的答案在文章的第五段。 该段首句为段落中心句,“与思考眼前的未来相比,对如此之长的时间跨度进行思考似乎更为容易”,反过来思考也就是说,眼前的未来更难思考,符合D选项含义“我们眼前的未来很难去设想”。A选项“Arc 帮助缩小了未来学研究的范围”,该选项在文中出现在该段的最后一句话“这就是为什么我们可以发行Arc这样一个致力于研究近期未来的全新出版物”,和题目含义有很大出入,故排除。B选项“技术为社会问题提供了解决方法”,段中并未提到。C选项“对科幻小说的兴趣与日俱增”,该段中虽在第二句提到科幻小说家,但并未提及对科幻小说的兴趣,故排除。正确答案为D项“Our immediate future is hard to conceive”。

  34.【答案】[C] draw onour experience from the past

  【解析】段落细节题。由本题的题干可以锁定本题的答案在倒数第二自然段第二句,“As so often , the past holds the key to thefuture . ”此题就是考查对这句话的理解,“ 未来是掌握过去的关键。”由此确定正确答案为B。选项A 、C、D 与题干无关,在原文中无直接体现,也不能归纳得出,故排除 。

  35.【答案】[C] TheEver-bright Prospects of Mankind

  【解析】全文的主旨题。考查考生对全文主题的把握。通观全文,我们可发现作者对未来是十分看好的,尤其在文章最后一段最后一句“But we are now knowledgeable enough to reducemany of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and toimprove the lot of those to come. ”作者直接借助这句话重申主题。由此,本题正确答案应既包含“未来”,也应能体现出作者对未来的态度。确定选项C为正确答案。选项A错在无中生有,全文当中对于未来,并无体现出对于其的不确定;本文讲的是人类对于未来的看法,而不是讲人类的进化史,因此B错误;D选项过于笼统,并未体现出作者的乐观态度,因此不对。

  Text 4

  36.【答案】 overstepped the authority offederal immigration law。

  【解析】事实细节题。principles that federal lawsprecede state laws are noncontroversial are noncontroversial。说明联邦法律高于州的法律是无可争辩的。答案选项they“overstepped the authority offederal immigration law。”---他们(亚利桑那州的法案)逾越了联邦法案。就是对文中这句话的反义改写。Overstep 为同义替换原文中的intrude, authority 同义替换了privileged powers。

  属于同义置换。

  37.【答案】States’ legitimate role in immigrationenforcement。州政府在移民[微博]法案实施中的合法地位。

  【解析】第四段主要说明了,州警察依然可以核实移民的法律地位。国会设想joint federal-state immigrationenforcement联合实施移民法案。同时,encourages state officers to share information andcooperate with federal colleagues。国会鼓励州警察与联邦同事分享信息以及相互合作。其他选项的withhold,independence,intervention文中也没有提到。属于过度推断。

  38.【答案】(Stood infavor of the states)

  【解析】第五段最后一句:唯一的最主要的反对来自法官Antonino Scalia, 这个法官“defense” 是支持州的权利的,“going back to”可追溯到Alien and Sedition Acts,证明这个法案是支持州的权利的。

  39.【答案】(outweightsthat held by the states。)

  联邦政府的权利大过州的实施权利

  【解析】第六段The White House 认为亚利桑那州的法律跟白宫的法律实施权利冲突。In effect后面表达的是重点:如果这些州的法律跟它有冲突的话,白宫声明它有权利宣布其它州的法律无效。

  40.【答案】(TheAdministration is dominant over immigration issues。)

  (政府在移民问题上占据着主导地位)

  【解析】本段第一句话,联邦政府确实有一些exclusively(专门地)权利,比如控制居民以及边界。这就暗示了移民问题上,政府当局是具有主导权利的。

  Part B

  41.【答案】G (These issues all have root causes in human behavior.。。)

  【解析】此题可以通过上下文的衔接和代词指代来确定答案。空格前一句谈到“这种巨大的能源不是当今全球问题的主要影响因素,这些问题包括气候变化、安全、可持续发展和健康问题”,空后谈到“人类有必要的农业技术工具来消除饥饿”,空格处应该填入的选项可以连接前后句的内容,既包括谈及到全球问题,又谈及到解决问题的选项只有G项。该项首句提到的these issues即指代空前所提及的全球问题,以及该项第二句的climate change举例说明即是空前所列出的问题之一,并且该项提及解决气候变化的问题,很好的启示了下文。

  42.【答案】C (Despite these factors.。。)

  【解析】本题可以通过连贯性原则和代词指代来确定答案。上段末句提到“问题也带有社会因素:对食物的组织和分配,财产和财富”,空格后谈到“这是一种耻辱,社会应该抓住机会提升它在真实世界中的影响”,并且应用了社会科学家的话语来表明应该采取行动,即:上段末句提到的问题,空前谈到存在问题,那么接下来应该解决问题,但是空后谈到这是一种耻辱,然后纠正应该解决问题,所以空格处应该承上启下,表达没有解决问题这个含义,因此C项“尽管存在这些因素,很多社会科学家不愿意解决此问题”即为正确选项,该项中these factors指代上段末句提到的社会因素,而“很多科学家不愿意解决此问题”就是下文提及的this。

  43.【答案】B (However, the numbers are still small.。。)

  【解析】本题可以通过原词复现和逻辑关系来确定答案。空前一句讲到“ the number of papers including.....have increased rapidly .。。”,紧接着在选项B中也出现了“the number”,属于原词复现。从逻辑关系的角度来看,选项B有一个明显的转折词“however”,这说明其表达的含义与空前信息相反,该选项提到“the numbers are still small”(数量非常小),空前信息是“the number ... increased rapidly”(数量增长非常迅速),两者在语意上构成了明显的转折关系。所以正确答案为B。

  44.【答案】D (During the late 1990s.。。)

  【解析】本题设在段落中间,可以通过段落一致性代词指代来确定答案。该段第一句提到:“The problem is not necessarily the amount of availablefunding”,其表达的含义是:事情的问题不是可用资金的数目。那接下来要讲的内容一定和资金有关系。空后出现了代词“this is an adequate amount”其含义是:这个资金数目是足够的。那么this指代的内容一定和adequate amount相关,而选项D的题干是“nationalspending varied from 4% to 25%”,其表述的内容正是资金的总量。因此选项D为正确答案。

  45.【答案】E (The idea is to force social to integrate.。。)

  【解析】本题设空在段落中间,应瞻前顾后地依据连贯性原则确定答案。空前的信息是指欧盟提议取消了之前设定的专门投资支持社会科学家的专栏项目,其目的不是为了忽略社会科学家,而是完全相反,即文章中的“complete opposite”,根据语意衔接,接下来会说明欧盟这一做法的真正目的,并且这一目的对于社会科学家一定是积极的。选项E中的the idea指代空前出现的“it was proposed that.。。”,即欧盟的提案。除此之外,空后提到了collaborative endeavors,与选项E中的短语integrate with构成了同义替换。空后信息中的global problems与选项E中的health and demographic change, food security, ...and secure societies构成上下义的关系,这也是解题的一道线索,因此,正确答案为选项E。

  Section III Translation

  46. yet, when onelooks at the photographs of the gardens created by the homeless, it strikes onethat, for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various otherfundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression。

  【参考译文】然而,看着无家可归者绘制出的花园图片时,人们会突然想到,尽管这些花园风格多样,它们都显示了人类除了装饰和创造性表达之外的其他各种基本诉求

  47. A sacred placeof peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed toshelter, which is a distinctly animal need。

  【参考译文】无论地方多么简陋不堪,寻求一片静谧圣土是人类特有的需求,而动物需要的仅是仅是避难栖息之地。

  48. The gardens ofthe homeless, which are in effect homeless gardens, introduce form into an urbanenvironment where it either didn’t exist or was not discernible as such。

  【参考译文】无家可归者的乐园,实际上是一个毫无家气息的地方,给城市环境带来了一种新的形式。。

  无家可归者描绘的花园实质上是无所依附的,这些花园把一种形式引入城市环境中,而这样的城市环境中,形式要么根本不存在, 要么就完全不是以这种明显的方式存在。

  49. most of usgive in to a demoralization of spirit which usually blame on some psychologicalconditions, until one day we find ourselves in a garden and feel the oppressionvanish as if by magic。

  【参考译文】我们大多数人会深陷于精神萎靡的状态,并常常将此归咎为一些心理原因,直到某天我们发现自己置身花园中,感到如魔法般烦闷尽消

  50. It is thisimplicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of theword garden, though in a “liberated” sense, to describe these syntheticconstructions。

  【参考译文】正是对自然的这种或隐晦含蓄或清晰直白的提及,充分证实了用“花园”一词来描述这些虚拟建筑是合乎情理的,即使是从毫无拘泥的意义来讲的。

  SectionIV Writing

  51.

  【参考范文】

  Dear Professor Wang,

  Iam writing on behalf of our college to invite you to be a judge for the Englishspeech contest which will be held next week。

  We know that you are admired by all the students. As college students,we would like to improve our abilities in spoken English as well as writtenEnglish. We would be grateful if you could be the judge for this contest to beheld in Room 102, the Teaching Building on Saturday,June 4th, at 7p.m。

  We trust you will be disengaged and able to give us the pleasure of yourcompany. We are looking forward to seeing you。

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  52.

  【参考范文】

  Emerging from the cartoon is an eye-catching scene that a mass ofgraduates are at a critical turning point on the way to the future. A varietyof choices, such as finding a job, going further education or abroad, and doingpioneering work, lie in front of them。

  The implication echoed by this cartoon can besummarized as a philosophic topic in our daily life:the success of a man is directly related to thechoice made by himself. Nevertheless, I cherish a belief that we can not tellwhether the selection is good or not, and as long as we adhere to our decisionsuccess will be realized step by step. Although making choice is essential tohelp determine the direction of our way, judged from the personal aspect, persistencefunctions as an indispensable driving force to keep up our spirit and to assistus to fulfill our study and work. However, some people, pacing up and down, are not industrious and tryto find a short-cut success. In fact, only those who are hard-working and braveenough to encounter obstacles of all sorts are most likely to reach the summitof success。

  It occurs to many that the most fundamental thing to success is making agood choice. But I recommend that graduates as well as all the citizens shouldstruggle to make their choice be a reality。

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