Simulated Test Two
试卷一 Paper One
Part Ⅰ Dialogue Communication (10 minutes, 10 points, 1 for each)
Section A Dialogue Completion
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short incomplete dialogues between two speakers, each followed by 4 choices A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer that best suits the situation to complete the dialogue by marking the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
1 A: Oh, Professor Cohen is at a conference at the moment, but if you leave your phone number he may call you back when he returns.
B: Thank you for your help.
A. This is his student speaking.
B. Can you take a message?
C. I'm afraid I can't.
D. My phone number is 2745301.
2. A: Did you speak to the famous star?
B: , but I was unable to speak when I was face to face with him.
A. Yes, I did. B. I wanted to,
C. No, I didn't. D. Sure thing,
3 A: My history assignment's due tomorrow morning and I haven't even started it yet.
A. I'll miss you at the party tonight.
B. Just forget it and go to the party.
C. Why don't you put it off till next week?
D. Professor Jones will punish you seriously.
4. A: Now you are in the new company, you may need to buy some new clothes.
B: , nobody cares what I wear.
A. However I work hard, B. As long as I work hard,
C. Although I work hard, C. If only I could work hard,
5. A: I saw a really wonderful movie on TV last night. Did you see it?
A. Wow, I will see a wonderful one tomorrow.
B. Oh, no! I wish I had known about it.
C. Come on, I've seen a better one.
D. Sorry, I have no interest in it.
Section B Dialogue Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will read 5 short conversations between a man and a woman. At the end of conversation there is a question followed by 4 choices marked A,B,C and D. Choose the best answer to the question by marking the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.
6. M: Why don't you tell your boss that you are going to work in a new company? He knows nothing about it.
W: I don't want to burn my bridges at this time. I'll tell him when all is set.
Q: Why doesn't the woman want to tell her boss now?
A. She wants to leave a way out.
B. She doesn't trust her boss.
C. She wants to repay her boss.
D. She wants to stay with her boss as long as possible.
7 W: There are many summer programs, but I don't know what activities my daughter should take part in.
M: You can talk with the teacher and other children's parents and follow suit.
Q: What does the man suggest the woman do when choosing summer programs for her daughter?
A. She should let her daughter decide.
B. She should choose what the teacher is interested in.
C. She should make the same choice as the other parents.
D. She should choose what she is interested in.
8 M: Did you see the car accident at the street corner?
W: Yes, I went cold all over. The two boys were seriously injured and they were sent to the hospital immediately.
Q: How did the woman respond when she saw the car accident?
A. She felt very cold because of the weather.
B. She was frightened by the scene.
C. She sent the two boys to the hospital.
D. She went to help the injured immediately.
9 M: Do you know that Jerry turned down the job offer by the company?
W: Yeah, the hours were convenient but he wouldn't have been able to make ends meet.
Q: Why did Jerry refuse to take the job?
A. The working hours were too long.
B. The job was not well-paid.
C. He didn't like working in a company.
D. The job was quite difficult.
10. M: Margaret has become an intern（实习生） at the White House.
W: When it comes to pursuing professional goals, she likes to shoot for the stars.
Q: What can be inferred from the conversation?
A. The woman looks down upon Margaret.
B. The woman feels jealous of Margaret.
C. Margaret has the chance to meet stars at the White House.
D. Margaret has set a high goal in her career.
Part Ⅱ Vocabulary (10 minutes, 10 points, 0.5 for each)
Directions: In this section there are ten sentences, each with one word or phrase underlined. Choose the one from the four choices marked A, B, C and D that best keeps the meaning of the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center
11. With the facilitation of modern transportation, it is no longer true that you can only enjoy authentic Beijing roast ducks in the capital city.
A. tasty B. genuine
C. special D. traditional
12. Mr. Green's sore arm is not a new development but the return of a chronic ailment.
A. serious B. disappearing
C. frequent D. lingering
13. The project is not compatible with the company's long-term aims.
A. agreeable B. profitable
C. practical D. feasible
14. Failure to comply with the regulations will result in prosecution.
A. obey B. defy
C. ignore D. define
15. We can do without luxuries and entertainment. However, food, shelter, and clothing are indispensable.
A. dependable B. essential
C. optional D. welcome
16. Water supplies in this area were contaminated by dumped waste.
A. blocked B. polluted
C. threatened D. exhausted
17. What impressed us most was the leader's dauntless optimism, which was the source of strenth in time of adversity.
A. restless B. fearless
C. spiritless D. endless
18. Liberty often degenerates into lawlessness.
A. deteriorates B. grows
C. disassembles D. merges
19. She was in dilemma as to whether to marry Mike, who was poor but handsome, or Eric who was rich but ugly.
A. situation B. trap
C. predicament D. embarrassment
20. The police ascribed the automobile accident to fast driving.
A. attributed B. added
C. contributed D. classified
Directions: In this section, there are 10 incomplete sentences. For each sentence there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
21. The famous scientist ________ his success to hard work.
A. imparted B. granted C. ascribed D. acknowledged
22. Now the cheers and applause ________in a single sustained roar
A. mingled B. concentrated C. assembled D. permeated
23. Improved consumer confidence is _______ to an economic recovery.
A. crucial B. subordinate C. cumulative D. satisfactory
24. Although the body is made up of many different issues, these issues are arranged in an ________ orderly fashion.
A. incredible B. intricate C. internal D. initial
25. If you work under a car when repairing it, you often get very _______.
A. waxy B. slippery C. sticky D. greasy
26. The damage to the car was ______; therefore, he could repair it himself.
A. considerable B. appreciable C. negligible D. invisible
27. My sister is quite ________and plans to get an M.A. degree within one year.
A. aggressive B. enthusiastic C. considerate D. ambitious
28. His _______was telling him that something was wrong.
A. intuition B. hypothesis C. inspiration D. sentiment
29. This book is about how these basic beliefs and values affect important ________of American life .
A. fashions B. frontiers C. facets D. formats
30. Parents often faced the ________ between doing what they felt was good for the development of the child and what they could stand by way of undisciplined noise and destructiveness.
A.paradox B. junction C. dilemma D. premise
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (55 minutes, 25 points, 1 for each)
Directions: There are five passages in this part. Each passage is followed by five questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET Passage one
The longest bull run in a century of art-market history ended on a dramatic note with a sale of 56 works by Damien Hirst, "Beautiful Inside My Head Forever"，at Sotheby's in London on September 15th 2008. All but two pieces sold, fetching more than ￡70m, a record for a sale by a single artist. It was a last victory. As the auctioneer called out bids, in New York one of the oldest banks on Wall Street, Lehman Brothers, filed for bankruptcy.
The world art market had already been losing momentum for a while after rising bewilderingly since 2003. At its peak in 2007 it was worth some $65 billion, reckons Clare McAndrew, founder of Arts Economics, a research firm-double the figure five years earlier. Since then it may have come down to $50 billion. But the market generates interest far beyond its size because it brings together great wealth, enormous egos, greed, passion and controversy in a way matched by few other industries.
In the weeks and months that followed Mr Hirst's sale, spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable, especially in New York, where the bail-out of the banks coincided with the loss of thousands of jobs and the financial demise of many art-buying investors. In the art world that meant collectors stayed away from galleries and salerooms. Sales of contemporary art fell by two-thirds, and in the most overheated sector-for Chinese contemporary art-they were down by nearly 90% in the year to November 2008. Within weeks the world's two biggest auction houses, Sotheby's and Christie's, had to pay out nearly $200m in guarantees to clients who had placed works for sale with them.
The current downturn in the art market is the worst since the Japanese stopped buying Impressionists at the end of 1989, a move that started the most serious contraction in the market since the Second World War. This time experts reckon that prices are about 40% down on their peak on average, though some have been far more fluctuant. But Edward Dolman, Christie's chief executive, says: "I'm pretty confident we're at the bottom."
What makes this slump different from the last, he says, is that there are still buyers in the market, whereas in the early 1990s, when interest rates were high, there was no demand even though many collectors wanted to sell. Christie's revenues in the first half of 2009 were still higher than in the first half of 2006. Almost everyone who was interviewed for this special report said that the biggest problem at the moment is not a lack of demand but a lack of good work to sell. The three Ds-death, debt and divorce-still deliver works of art to the market. But anyone who does not have to sell is keeping away, waiting for confidence to return.
31.In the first paragraph, Damien Hirst's sale was referred to as "a last victory" because ____.
A. the art market had witnessed a succession of victories
B. the auctioneer finally got the two pieces at the highest bids
C. Beautiful Inside My Head Forever won over all masterpieces
D. it was successfully made just before the world financial crisis
32.By saying "spending of any sort became deeply unfashionable"(Line 1-2,Para.3)，the author suggests that_____.
A. collectors were no longer actively involved in art-market auctions
B .people stopped every kind of spending and stayed away from galleries
C. art collection as a fashion had lost its appeal to a great extent
D .works of art in general had gone out of fashion so they were not worth buying
33. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A .Sales of contemporary art fell dramatically from 2007 to 2008.
B. The art market surpassed many other industries in momentum.
C. The market generally went downward in various ways.
D. Some art dealers were awaiting better chances to come.
34. What is the meaning of "coincided" according to the passage?
A. coined B. earned
C. co-happened D. aggravated
35. The three Ds mentioned in the last paragraph are ____
A. auction houses ' favorites
B. contemporary trends
C. factors promoting artwork circulation
D. styles representing impressionists
36. The most appropriate title for this text could be ___
A. Fluctuation of Art Prices
B. Up-to-date Art Auctions
C. Art Market in Decline
D. Shifted Interest in Arts
Over the past decade, many companies had perfected the art of creating automatic behaviors - habits - among consumers. These habits have helped companies earn billions of dollars when customers eat snacks, apply lotions and wipe counters almost without thinking, often in response to a carefully designed set of daily cues.
"There are fundamental public health problems, like dirty hands instead of a soap habit, that remain killers only because we can't figure out how to change people's habits," Dr. Curtis said. "We wanted to learn from private industry how to create new behaviors that happen automatically."
The companies that Dr. Curtis turned to - Procter & Gamble, Colgate-Palmolive and Unilever - had invested hundreds of millions of dollars finding the subtle cues in consumers' lives that corporations could use to introduce new routines.
If you look hard enough, you'll find that many of the products we use every day - chewing gums, skin moisturizers, disinfecting wipes, air fresheners, water purifiers, health snacks, antiperspirants, colognes, teeth whiteners, fabric softeners, vitamins- are results of manufactured habits. A century ago, few people regularly brushed their teeth multiple times a day. Today, because of canny advertising and public health campaigns, many Americans habitually give their pearly whites a cavity-preventing scrub twice a day, often with Colgate, Crest or one of the other brands.
A few decades ago, many people didn't drink water outside of a meal. Then beverage companies started bottling the production of far-off springs, and now office workers unthinkingly sip bottled water all day long. Chewing gum, once bought primarily by adolescent boys, is now featured in commercials as a breath freshener and teeth cleanser for use after a meal. Skin moisturizers are advertised as part of morning beauty rituals, slipped in between hair brushing and putting on makeup.
"Our products succeed when they become part of daily or weekly patterns," said Carol Berning, a consumer psychologist who recently retired from Procter & Gamble, the company that sold $76 billion of Tide, Crest and other products last year. "Creating positive habits is a huge part of improving our consumers' lives, and it's essential to making new products commercially viable."
Through experiments and observation, social scientists like Dr. Berning have learned that there is power in tying certain behaviors to habitual cues through relentless advertising. As this new science of habit has emerged, controversies have erupted when the tactics have been used to sell questionable beauty creams or unhealthy foods.
37. According to Dr. Curtis, habits like hand washing with soap________.
[A] should be further cultivated
[B] should be changed gradually
[C] are deeply rooted in history
[D] are basically private concerns
38. Bottled water, chewing gun and skin moisturizers are mentioned in Paragraph 5 so as to____
[A] reveal their impact on people's habits
[B] show the urgent need of daily necessities
[C] indicate their effect on people's buying power
[D] manifest the significant role of good habits
39. Which of the following does NOT belong to products that help create people's habits?
40. What is the meaning of "viable" according to the passage?
A. diverse B. acceptable
C. feasible D. durable
41. From the text we know that some of consumer's habits are developed due to _____
[A]perfected art of products
[B]automatic behavior creation
42. The author's attitude toward the influence of advertisement on people's habits is____
"The word 'protection' is no longer taboo (禁忌语)". This short sentence, uttered by French President Nicolas Sarkozy last month, may have launched a new era in economic history. Why? For decades, Western leaders have believed that lowering trade barriers and tariffs was a natural good. Doing so, they reasoned, would lead to greater economic efficiency and productivity, which in turn would improve human welfare. Championing free trade thus became a moral, not just an economic, cause.
These leaders, of course, weren't acting out of unselfishness. They knew their economies were the most competitive, so they'd profit most from liberalization. And developing countries feared that their economies would be swamped by superior Western productivity. Today, however, the tables have turned---though few acknowledge it. The West continues to preach free trade, but practices it less and less. Asian, meanwhile, continues to plead for special protection but practices more and more free trade.
That's why Sarkozy's words were so important: he finally injected some honesty into the trade debates. The truth is that large parts of the West are losing faith in tree trade, though few leaders admit it. Some economists are more honest. Paul Krugman is one of the few willing to acknowledge that protectionist arguments are returning. In the short run, there will be winners and losers under free trade. This, of course, is what capitalism is all about. But more and more of these losers will be in the West, Economists in the developed world used to love quoting Jonoph Schumpeter, who said that 'creative destruction" was an essential part of capitalist growth. But they always assumed that destruction would happen over there. When Western workers began losing jobs, suddenly their leaders began to lose faith in their principles, Things have yet to reverse completely. But there's clearly a negative trend in a Western theory and practice.
A little hypocrisy (虚伪) is not in itself a serious problem. The real problem is that Western governments continue to insist that they retain control of the key global economic and financial institutions while drifting away from global liberalization. Lock at what's happening at the IMF (International Monetary Fund) The Europeans have demanded that they keep the post of managing director. But all too often, Western officials put their own interests above everyone else's when they dominate these global institutions.
The time has therefore come for the Asians-who are clearly the new winners in today's global economy-to provide more intellectual leadership in supporting free trade: Sadly, they have yet to do so. Unless Asians speak out, however, there's a real danger that Adam Smith's principles, which have brought so much good to the world, could gradually die. And that would leave all of us, worse off, in one way or another.
43. It can be inferred that "protection" (Line 1, Para.1) means________
A. improving economic efficiency.
B. ending the free-trade practice
C. lowering moral standard
D. raising trade tariffs
44. The Western leaders preach free trade because________
A. it is beneficial to their economies
B. it is supported by developing countries
C. it makes them keep faith in their principles
D. it is advocated by Joseph Schumpeter and Adam Smith
45. By "the tables have turned" (Line 3-4,Para.2) the author implies that________
A. the Western leaders have turned self-centered
B. the Asian leaders have become advocates of free trade
C. the developed economies have turned less competitive
D. the developing economies have become more independent
46. The Western economies used to like the idea of "creative destruction" because it________
A. set a long-term rather than short-turn goal
B. was an essential part of capitalist development
C. contained a positive rather than negative mentality
D. was meant to be the destruction of developing economies
47. The author uses "IMF" was an example to illustrate the point that_______
A. European leaders are reluctant to admit they are hypocritical
B. there is an inconsistency between Western theory and practice
C. global institutions are not being led by true globalization advocates
D. European countries' interests are being ignored by economic leaders
48.Which of the following is true about Asians?
A. Asians have to speak out the protection
B. Asians have demand that they keep the post of managers
C. Asians succeed in today's global economy
D. Asians succeed by Adam Smith's principles
We have a crisis on our hands. You mean global warming? The world economy? No, the decline of reading. People are just not doing it anymore, especially the young. Who's responsible? Actually, it's more like, What is responsible? The Interact, of course, and everything that comes with it - Facebook, Twitter (微博). You can write your own list.
There's been a warning about the imminent death of literate civilization for a long time. In the 20th century, first it was the movies, then radio, then television that seemed to spell doom for the written world. None did. Reading survived; in fact it not only survived, it has flourished. The world is more literate than ever before - there are more and more readers, and more and more books.
The fact that we often get our reading material online today is not something we should worry over. The electronic and digital revolution of the last two decades has arguably shown the way forward for reading and for writing. Take the arrival of e-book readers as an example. Devices like Kindle make reading more convenient and are a lot more environmentally friendly than the traditional paper book.
As technology makes new ways of writing possible, new ways of reading are possible. Interconnectivity allows for the possibility of a reading experience that was barely imaginable before. Where traditional books had to make do with photographs and illustrations, an e-book can provide readers with an unlimited number of links: to texts, pictures, and videos. In the future, the way people write novels, history, and philosophy will resemble nothing seen in the past.
On the other hand, there is the danger of trivialization. One Twitter group is offering its followers single-sentence-long "digests" of the great novels. War and Peace in a sentence? You must be joking. We should fear the fragmentation of reading. There is the danger that the high-speed connectivity of the Internet will reduce our attention span - that we will be incapable of, reading anything of length or which requires deep concentration.
In such a fast-changing world, in which reality seems to be remade each day, we need the ability to focus and understand what is happening to us. This has always been the function of literature and we should be careful not to let it disappear. Our society needs to be able to imagine the possibility of someone utterly in tune with modem technology but able to make sense of a dynamic, confusing world.
In the 15th century, Johannes Guttenberg's invention of the printing press in Europe had a huge impact on civilization. Once upon a time the physical book was a challenging thing. We should remember this before we assume that technology is out to destroy traditional culture.
49.. Which of the following paragraphs briefly reviews the historical challenges for reading?
A. Paragraph One.
B. Paragraph Two.
C. Paragraph Three.
D. Paragraph Four.
50. The following are all cited as advantages of e-books EXCEPT
A. imaginative design.
B. environmental friendliness.
C. convenience for readers.
D. multimodal content.
51. Which of the following can best describe how the author feels toward single-sentence-long novels?
52. According to the passage, people need knowledge of modem technology and ________ to survive in the fast-changing society.
A. high sensitivity
B. good judgment
C. good imagination
D. the ability to focus
53. The author uses the example of Johannes Guttenberg to show that
A. Guttenberg's invention brought about huge impact to civilization.
B. Physical books were once a imagination.
C. Technology may not necessarily destroy our culture.
D. Traditional culture owes a lot to Johannes Guttenberg.
85. What is the main idea of the passage?
A. Technology pushes the way forward for reading and writing.
B. Interconnectivity is a feature of new reading experience.
C. Technology offers a greater variety of reading practice.
D. Technology is an opportunity and a challenge for traditional reading.
It looked just like another aircraft from the outside The pilot told his young passengers that it was built in 1964.But appearances were deceptive and the 13 students from Europe and the USA who boarded the aircraft were in for the flight of their lives.
Inside the area that normally had seats had become a long white tunnel. Heavily padded(填塞) from floor to ceiling it looked a bit strange. There were almost no windows, but lights along the padded walls illuminated it. Most of the seats had been taken out apart from a few at the back where the young scientists quickly took their places with a look of fear.
For 12 months, science students from across the continents had competed to win a place on the flight at the invitation of the European Space Agency. the challenge had been to suggest imaginative experiments to be conducted in weightless conditions.
For the next two hours the flight resembled that of an enormous bird which had lose its reason, shooting upwards towards the heavens before rushing towards Earth. The invention was to Achieve weightlessness for a few seconds.
The aircraft took off smoothly enough. But any feelings that I and the young scientists had that we were on anything like a scheduled passenger service were quickly dismissed when the pilot put the plane into a 45 degree climb which lasted around 20 seconds. Then the engines cut out and we became weightless. Everything become confused and left or right. Up or down no longer had any meaning. after ten seconds of free fall descent the pilot pulled the aircraft out of its nosedive. The return of gravity was less immediate than its loss. but was still sudden enough to ensure that some students came down with a bump.
Each time the pilot cut the engines and we became weightless. A new team conduct it experience. First it was the Dutch who wanted to discover how it is that cats always land on their feet. then the German team who conducted a successful experiment on a traditional building method to see if could be used for building a further space station. the Americans had an idea to create solar sails that could be used by satellites.
After two hours of going up and down in the lane doing their experiments, the predominate feeling was one of excitement rather than sickness. Most of the students thought it was an unforgettable experience and one they would be keen to repeat.
55、what did the writer say about the plane？.
A It had no seats.
B It was painted white.
C It had no windows.
D The outside was misleading.
56.according to the writer, how did the young scientists feel before the flight？
57.According to the passage, what can be concluded about European Space Agency?
A. It produces air-planes
B. It sends invitations
C. It trains students from across the continents
D. It conducts imaginative experiments
58.what did the pilot do with the plane after it took off？
A He quickly climbed and then stopped the engines.
B He climbed and them made the plane fall slowly.
C He took off normally and then cut the engines for 20 seconds.
D He climbed and then made the plane turn over.
59.Acoording to the passage, the purpose of being weightless was to
A see what conditions bare like in space
B prepare the young scientists for future work in space
C show the judges of the competition what they could do
D make the teams try out their ideas
60.this passage was written to
A encourage young people to take up science
B describe the process of a scientific competition
C show scientists what young people can do
D report on a new scientific technique
Part Ⅳ Cloze (15 minutes, 15 points, 1 for each)
Directions: In this part, there is a passage with 15 blanks. For each blank there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter on your ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center.
Most people who travel long distances complain of jetlag (喷气飞行时差反应). Jetlag makes business travelers less productive and more prone __61__ making mistakes. It is actually caused by disruption of your "body clock"一 a small cluster of brain cells that controls the timing of biological __62__. The body clock is de-signed for a __63__ rhythm of daylight and darkness, so that it is thrown out of balance when it experiences daylight and darkness at the "wrong" times in a new time zone. The __64__of jetlag often persist for days __65__ the internal body clock slowly adjusts to the new time zone.
Now a new anti-jetlag system is __66__ that is based on proven extensive pioneering scientific research.
Dr. Martin Moore-Ede has devised a practical strategy to adjust the body clock much sooner to the new time zone __67__ controlled exposure to bright light. The time zone shift is easy to accomplish and eliminates __68__ of the discomfort of jetlag.
A successful time zone shift depends on knowing the exact times to either __69__ or avoid bright light. Exposure to light at the wrong time can actually make jetlag worse. The proper schedule __70__ light exposure depends a great deal on__71__ travel plans.
Data on a specific flight itinerary (旅行路线) and the individual's sleep__72__are used to produce a Trip Guide with__73__on exactly when to be exposed to bright light.
When the Trip Guide calls __74__ bright light you should spend time outdoors if possible. If it is dark outside, or the weather is bad, __75__ you are on an aero plane, you can use a special light device to provide the necessary light stimulus for a range of activities such as reading, watching TV or working.
61. A. for B. from C. to D. of
62. A. actions B. functions C. reflection D. behavior
63. A. regular B. formal C. continual D. circular
64. A. diseases B. symptoms C. signs D. defects
65. A. while B. whereas C. if D. although
66. A. adaptable B. approachable C. available D. agreeable
67. A. at B. through C. in D. as
68. A. most B. least C. little D. more
69. A. attain B. shed C. retrieve D. seek
70. A. on B. with C. for D. in
71. A. unique B. specific C. complicated D. peculiar
72. A. norm B. mode C. pattern D. style
73. A. directories B. instructions C. specifications D. commentaries
74. A. off B. on C. for D. up
75. A. or B. and C. but D. while
试卷二 Paper Two
Part Ⅰ Translation (30 minutes, 20 points, 10 for each section)
Direction: Translate the following underlined sentences into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
People have wondered for a long time how their personalities, and behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is intelligent and another is not, or why one is cooperative and another is competitive.
Social scientists are, of course, extremely interested in these types of questions. (1)They want to explain why we possess certain characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear answers yet，but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have developed. As one might expect, the two approaches are very different from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as" nature vs. nurture".
(2)Those who support the "nature" side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors. (3)That our environment has little，if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory. Taken to an extreme, this theory maintains that our behavior is predetermined to such a great degree that we are almost completely governed by our instincts.
Those who support the "nurture" theory, that is, they advocate education, are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining how we will act. A behaviorist, B.F. Skinner, sees humans as beings whose behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings. The behaviorists maintain that, like machines，humans respond to environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.
Let us examine the different explanations about one human characteristic, intelligence, offered by the two theories. Supporters of the "nature" theory insist that we are born with a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined. (4) Needless to say，they don't believe that factors in the environment have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic. On the other hand，behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are the product of our experiences. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
The social and political implications of these two theories are profound. In the United States, blacks often score below whites on standardized intelligence tests. This leads some "nature" proponents to conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites. (5)Behaviorists, in contrast, say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.
Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain human behavior.
Direction: Translate the following sentences into English. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.
Part Ⅱ Writing (30 minutes, 15 points)
Directions: For this part, you are to write a short essay entitled Due Attention Should Be Given to the Study of Chinese. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below: