Psychological tests are tools. Like all tools, their effectiveness depends on the knowledge, skill, and sincerity of the user. A hammer can be used to build a beautiful kitchen cabinet or it can be used as a weapon of assault. Like a hammer, intelligence tests can be used for positive purposes or they can be abusive. It is important for both the test constructor and the test examiner to be familiar with the current state of scientific knowledge about intelligence and intelligence tests.
Even though they have limitations, intelligence tests are among psychology’s most widely used tools. To be effective, though, intelligence tests must be viewedrealistically. They should not be thought of as a fixed, unchanging indicator of a person’s intelligence. They should also be used in conjunction with other information about a person and should not be relied upon as the sole indicator of whether a child should be placed in a special-education or gifted class. The child’s developmental history, medical background, performance in school, social competencies, and family experiences should be taken into account, too.
The single number provided by many IQ tests can easily lead to stereotypes and expectations about a person. Many people do not know how to interpret the results of an intelligence test, and sweeping generalizations about a person are too often made on the basis of an IQ score. Imagine, for example, that you are a teacher sitting in the teacher’s lounge the day after school has started in the fall. You mention a student — Johnny Jones — and a fellow teacher remarks that she had Johnny in class last year, and goes on to say that he was a real dunce, pointing out that his IQ is 78. You cannot help but remember this information, and it may lead you to think that Johnny Jones is not very bright so it is useless to spend much time teaching him. In this way, IQ scores are misused and stereotypes are formed.
1. According to the author, intelligence tests ______.
A．cannot be used as the indicator of a person’s intelligence
B．can be used for positive purposes and can also be misused
C．are widely used because it is the sole indicator of one’s intelligence
D．are not so effective due to their own shortcomings
2. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A．The knowledge, skill and the sincerity of the user are the factors determining the effectiveness of the psychological test.
B．Since the intelligence tests have limitations, their results are not reliable although they are used very often.
C．A person’s intelligence can be measured with precision and accuracy if he or she takes an intelligence test.
D．Whether a child should be placed in a gifted class can easily be decided by his performance in the intelligence test.
3. The word “dunce” (Para. 3) stands for ______.
A．an average student
B ．a slow learner
C ．a dancing genius
D． a lazy boy or girl
4. It can be inferred from the third paragraph that ______.
A．low score in intelligence test indicate that one is a slow learner
B．intelligence tests are not scientific and must be prohibited
C．teacher should not treat students unequally according to their intelligence difference
D．intelligence tests are often misused and often lead to stereotype
5. Which of the following is the best title of the passage?
A．The Merits of Intelligence Tests
B．The Use and Misuse of Intelligence Tests
C．The Importance of Intelligence Tests
D．The Limitations of Intelligence Tests